Italy profile

Map of Italy

Take the art works of Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Tintoretto and Caravaggio, the operas of Verdi and Puccini, the cinema of Federico Fellini, add the architecture of Venice, Florence and Rome and you have just a fraction of Italy's treasures from over the centuries.

While the country is renowned for these and other delights, it is also notorious for its precarious political life and has had several dozen governments since the end of World War II.

The Italian political landscape underwent a seismic shift in the early 1990s when the "mani pulite" ("clean hands") operation exposed corruption at the highest levels of politics and big business. Several former prime ministers were implicated and thousands of businessmen and politicians were investigated.

There were high hopes at the time that the "mani pulite" scandal would give rise to a radical reform of Italian political culture, but these hopes were dashed when the old structures were replaced by a new political landscape dominated by the multi-millionaire businessman Silvio Berlusconi, who himself became increasingly mired in scandals and corruption affairs.

FACTS

LEADERS

President: Sergio Mattarella

Italy's President Sergio Mattarella

Sergio Mattarella, a constitutional court judge and veteran centre-left politician, was chosen as president by members of parliament in January 2015.

He succeeded Giorgio Napolitano, who stepped down due to old age.

He was little known among the general public but is a respected figure in political circles after a 25-year parliamentary career and several stints as minister in governments of the left and right.

Prime Minister: Matteo Renzi

Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi

Matteo Renzi became the youngest prime minister in modern Italian history after triggering the ousting of his fellow centre-left Democratic Party (PD) colleague Enrico Letta in February 2014.

Mr Renzi came to power with a programme of rapid economic and political reform, including tax cuts, investment in jobs and removing law-making powers from the upper house, the Senate.

Unusually, the PD leader was not a member of parliament when President Giorgio Napolitano nominated him to form a government, but the outgoing mayor of his native Florence.

Born in 1975, Mr Renzi presents himself as a radical break from the past in both style and policy, and his rise has been widely hailed as heralding an overdue generational change.

MEDIA

Silvio Berlusconi appears on Rai TV Political chat shows are a staple of the Italian media scene

Italy's heady blend of politics and media has often made headlines at home and abroad, with concern regularly being expressed over the concentration of media ownership in the hands of one man - former prime minister Silvio Berlusconi.

Mr Berlusconi's Mediaset empire operates Italy's top private TV stations, and the public broadcaster, Rai, has traditionally been subject to political influence, so that when Mr Berlusconi was prime minister, he was able to exert tight control over both public and private broadcasting.

Between them, Rai and Mediaset dominate Italy's TV market and are a potentially powerful political tool, especially as 80% of the population is said to rely on television for its daily news - the highest percentage in the EU.

TIMELINE

1861 - Italy becomes a nation-state under King Victor Emmanuel II.

The annual regatta on Venice's Grand Canal The annual regatta on Venice's Grand Canal

1915 - Italy enters World War I on side of the Allies.

1922 - Fascist leader Benito Mussolini forms government, moves country towards fascist dictatorship.

1929 - Lateran Treaty creates state of Vatican City.

1935 - Italy invades Ethiopia.

1936 - Mussolini forms axis with Nazi Germany.

1940-45: Italy fights in World War II on German side. Invaded by the Allies in 1943, signs armistice. Mussolini captured and executed by Italian partisans as the war ends.

Vittorio Emmanuele gallery in Milan Milan is Italy's leading financial centre

1948 - New constitution. Christian Democrats win elections.

1951 - Italy joins European Coal and Steel Community.

1955 - Italy joins United Nations.

1957 - Founder member of European Economic Community.

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